Carettochelys insculpta


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General: Fly River Turtles are large nearly exclusively aquatic freshwater exotics vaguely similar to a North American softshell but thicker & bulkier with a shorter, broader snout & more 'flipper-like' limbs. They are also known as 'pig-nosed turtles,' in light of their bulbous fleshy shout with prominently divided nostrils some consider pig-like. Overall, the animal is grey to brown on top, & white underneath. The Fly River Turtle is the sole surviving member of Order Cryptodira; despite superficial similarities it is not closely related to the softshell turtles.

Head: Rather rounded, round dark eyes (pupil & iris black with dark blue sclera; remind me of a great white shark's), protuberant bulbous snout, & the top & sides of the head & top of the neck are grey but the underside of the face & neck & sides of the neck are white.

Carapace: The carapace tends to be grey to live to brown with some subdued lateral white spots/patches. Like in softshells the shell is covered with leathery skin & lacks the keratin scutes of 'hard-shelled' turtles, but unlike softshells the carapace margin is inflexible.

Plastron: The plastron is largely white but pinkish in juveniles. A switch from light color to reddish in an adult may indicate irritation from poor water quality; if not corrected this can kill.

For a more extensive physical description, see this extensive description at

Size: Wild Specimens: Length:  Up to 22 inches (56.3 cm). Weight: Up to 49.5 lbs (22.5 kg). (Georges and Rose, 1993). Captive Specimens:’s Captive Care page by Scott Thomson & Jan Matiaska notes “Out of all the data about captive specimens I have come across, the maximum carapace length was approximately 35 cm.”




Temperature Range (°F): (All ranges are estimates)

  • Air Temperature: 80’s

  • Basking Temperature:  N.A. (One of the very rare species where a basking platform in unnecessary).

  • Water Temperature:  79 - 86ºF1.


A large, fairly active exclusively aquatic turtle capable of abrupt bursts of speed when startled & requiring warm tropical spacious accommodations with pristine water quality. Highly aggressive toward its own kind & some other turtles. Prone to fungal infections which can rapidly kill it. Expensive & went to CITES II in late 2004.


Noted to thrive on a diverse diet of figs, apples, other fruits, eel weed (Vallisneria sp.), whitebait (Pisces) and shrimp per one source2. I recommend inclusion of a strong brand name commercial tortoise or box turtle food (Mazuri, ZooMed, etc…) with Vit. D3 content. Given that UV-B penetration of water is sub-optimal & they generally don’t bask, dietary Vit. D3 is necessary so consider a quality Vit. D3 supplement. Flavia said her's like aquatic plants (like water lettuce), and she recommended they be part of the diet. Menikos suggested Spirulina algae wafers.

MacLeod noted in his experience all ages will eat floating food, but in Olson’s experience juveniles often would not take food from the surface and required sinking foods (Eric knew some that took years to shift to surface feeding). Flavia’s experience was midway; she said when very small they’re afraid to eat floating pellets, but after a few weeks, when used to owner and aquarium, they will. MacLeod knew of 2 F.R.T.’s fed primarily on ReptoMin when small who developed deformed, upturned shells. MacLeod recommended lower protein pellets (under 30%) for small F.R.T.’s, and supplementation with romaine lettuce, grapes, banana (which his love), cantaloupe, worms, dead minnows & other items. He’s seen a pair of youngsters do well with high quality low-protein (25%) floating Purina trout chow (now called Aquamax) as a primary food. MacLeod believed F.R.T.s over 4” better tolerate the higher protein turtle foods, although it’s not clear they require them. He reported the species is prone to fixate on a single type of food, more so than any other turtle he’s seen, so emphasize variety.

For an extensive discussion, check out’s feeding page. The author states that in his experience their plant/animal matter dietary ratio is around 2:1. Don’t miss the fact you can click on food photos at the bottom & call up extensive nutritional information on that item!


Our standard recommendations would state for the first 6 months of life, feed commercial pellets or meaty foods such as earthworms or fish once daily, enough to diminish appetite but not gorge the turtle. After 6 months, switch to every other day feeding. Romaine lettuce, Anacharis, Water Hyacinth & other safe edible aquatic plants & other leafy greens may be offered daily for graze at will. Over time adjust diet content & schedule accounting for growth, activity level & appetite. Overfeeding high-protein foods can cause rapid growth & is believed harmful to the liver & kidneys.

These recommendations were devised for North American aquatic species ranging from red-eared sliders (who progress from predominantly carnivorous hatchlings to predominantly herbivorous omnivorous adults) to musk turtles (who remain predominantly carnivorous). Given the FRT's more herbivorous natural diet yet willingness to indulge in meaty foods, watch the protein intake - brand name commercial box turtle foods (tend to run ~ 25% protein) would be preferable to 'aquatic turtle' food (which runs ~ 35-45% protein). Since they won't get much basking (& thus UV-B light) in most captive enclosures make sure there's Vitamin D3 in the diet. Overfeeding pellets & meaty foods will likewise jeopardize water quality.


FRTs in captivity are considered (for practical purposes) exclusively aquatic turtles ; in essence, a freshwater answer to sea turtles.

Typical Natural Habitat: rivers, estuaries, lagoons, lakes, swamps and pools, with most found in areas with sand and gravel bottoms covered with silt & averaging 6 feet deep1. Habitat water bodies tend to have forested banks1. Water bodies may also have fallen trees and branches, undercut banks, exposed tree roots and litter accumulation for cover2. For habitat photos & more extensive discussion, read’s habitat page (the authors state “…this species only occurs in limestone-based rivers. It only occurs in rivers of high pH, high conductivity and high alkalinity. This means very stable, very clear water.”)

Drawing from softshell turtle care you might recommend the tank environment be non-abrasive, including the substrate (if any) (but read on…). No land area or basking spot is required, although providing a resting area near the surface is recommended. I asked Scott Thomson about lighting issues (given that UV-B doesn’t penetrate water deeply & FRT’s generally don’t bask – he doesn’t regard UV-B lighting as necessary but recommends broad-spectrum lighting with the complete visible light range (red through blue) to provide a day/night cycle as a behavioral enhancer. (Note: If desired you can provide enough UV-B to penetrate water via a Mega-Ray mercury vapor bulb6). Flavia Guimaraes said the shell can become soft & recommended keepers provide cuttlebone. Water Quality is very important due to risk of infection (bacterial &/or fungal); very powerful filtration, large water volume, frequent water changes and low bio-load preferred. A UV-Sterilizer may be considered (for lowering microbe concentrations in the water) (Stephen Menikos considered this helpful). Aquatic plants may aid water quality if lighting is strong enough & plants the turtle won’t eat are used. You will need either high-end commercial filtration (like pond filters) or consider custom do-it-yourself options.

One Consultant opined some F.R.T.s seem to get agitated in glass-bottomed tanks, and while he’d seen some do okay in large glass-bottomed enclosures they didn’t seem ‘happy.’ He noted they like to dig (Flavia concurred). Be warned a substrate can complicate enclosure hygiene. Non-abrasive gravel is one choice. Eric Olsen had misgivings about a deep substrate as it makes the tank harder to clean and may be ingested; he kept his in a bare tank. Flavia used large outdoor enclosures with hide areas but no substrate.’s captive care page notes sand’s an option & they can bury themselves in it. Jan Matiaska finds sand too much trouble to wash except in smaller tanks. In Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles5 (Page 209) Russ Gurley states there’ve been reports of captive FRT’s dying from ingesting stones or gravel, & recommends using a fine grade of sand & crushed coral as substrate (less impaction risk).

The importance of non-abrasive substrate has been called into question. Jan Matiaska doesn’t concern himself much with it & when scratched his FRT’s heal rapidly. He uses hard water around pH 7.5 (bacteria & fungi prosper best close to neutral pH), & uses shale/slate stones & wooden roots. In Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles5 (Pages 207-208) Russ Gurley states keepers can add crushed coral or limestone to a sand substrate to keep pH up (& recommends pH around 7.2 – 7.5).

They are particularly susceptible to fungal white-spot (Sphagnalium sp.) & it can kill youngsters within a week2 (Mike Palmer-Allen, pers. comm. to reference.). Eric Olson stated they are moderately vulnerable to SCUD even in a fairly clean tank. He lost one to rapid onset SCUD in spite of antibiotic intervention (after about 12-14 years, an impressive time frame with a delicate species). Maxx MacLeod observed a beautiful 10 incher die of it in the spring of 2001 (despite 3 month’s treatment). Flavia noted persistent infection (believed bacterial) in a pair she acquired with infected (originally believed fungal) shell borders; despite treatment efforts, when treatment stops, the infection recurs (be sure any F.R.T. you get is healthy starting out).

One Consultant noted an interesting ‘water quality detection’ system in F.R.T.’s. Should water quality deteriorate, their plastrons may become red & inflamed. After a water change the irritation clears up in hours. In one case failure to correct the water quality for about a month resulted in a nasty infection. Be mindful that’s description page states “Hatchlings and juveniles tend to have a plastron pink colored. Little blood vessels can be seen just underneath the plastron's surface.” Oliver Römpp’s page shows another juvenile plastron shot. Learn your turtle’s normal look so you can spot changes.

The ideal pH range wasn’t clear at our first edition; Menikos recommended pH 7.0 or higher & thought they liked alkaline water and that it helped maintain health. He recommended adding 1 tablespoon of aquarium salt per 5 gallons of water, & said they do well in a brackish environment. He said his turtle's general condition (shell, etc) seemed much better in a neutral to alkaline situation. When the water got a bit acidic it tended to look a bit stressed. MacLeod’s experience differed; he worked with F.R.T.s in tanks with pH’s of 6.2, 7.0 and 8.0 & they handled the entire range; he emphasized pristine water with very low nitrate & bacterial count as key. Maxx has known F.R.T.s to thrive in different pH environments for years.’s Scott Thomson & Jan Matiaska tell us the FRT is “…a hard water specialist turtle much like the fish of the African Lakes such as Lake Malawi. The natural conditions from which it comes from is largely rivers that have a limestone base,” “…they are high in carbonates and hence have a high but very stable pH of around 8.0 to 8.3. The KH and GH of the water is around the 18 to 25 dH.” They state “…this species only occurs in limestone based rivers. It only occurs in rivers of high pH, high conductivity and high alkalinity. This means very stable, very clear water.” Their page on water issues provides an excellent discussion of how they came to these recommendations & their practical significance. has an extensive captive care discussion (& check out the newer, more in-depth version, too!). High-lights from that page include that when frightened it can ‘shoot like a rocket’ (potentially ramming into things), one was once witnessed to jump from one tank to another, the recommendation for well-buffered alkaline water, the option of using sand substrate, the option of adding salt to the water & the belief a more alkaline pH will discourage bacterial & parasitic infections. I was concerned about the potential for crushed coral &/or sea shells to be abrasive & cause skin lesions; I asked Scott Thomson about that & he said “It should not cause problems if the turtles are in good condition. These animals live on crushed and jagged limestone in fast flowing rivers in the wild. They are not that delicate if in good condition. Personally I tend not to use crushed shell, I think it looks bad and can have sharp edges, but it is widely used and certainly cheaper than coral.” He pointed out that calcium carbonate can buffer pH to a higher level than sodium carbonate can, & considers the alkalinity important as well as pH.

In summary, wild FRT's hail from habitat with abrasive content but hard, alkaline water which is more 'sterile' than the softer, more neutral pH waters many of us are familiar with. In the U.S., tap water is often hard & alkaline right out of the tap, & hardness & alkalinity can be increased with substrates or commercial products like Proper pH. If your water is softer & more neutral, I recommend (on theoretical grounds) using a UV-sterilizer to keep microbe counts down or at least avoiding abrasive tank content.


For adults, minimum 200 gallon tank (mine’s 7’x2’x2’), and much larger preferred. In the minimum, the turtle may have to tuck its head in to sit facing forward! A proper enclosure could weigh a few tons, so planning must include flooring capable of supporting it. Aquariums in this size range will be acrylic. Don’t count on your turtle staying under 35 cm SCL.


Both adults & young juveniles tolerate water a few feet deep, although particularly for the latter there should be 'rest areas' (i.e.: driftwood, synthetic logs, etc...) near the surface. Be warned they can move fast & 'jump' out of the water so be mindful of escape potential when filling the tank.


Recommended only as a solo turtle. Well-known for strong aggression towards its own species (although some have success with small groups in huge enclosures), and dangerous to other turtles. MacLeod strongly recommended against mixing (stating it always ends up in nipping, scarring, missing tails, etc…) & knew of a couple of Blandings & a couple of Reeves Turtles missing parts of their tails due to F.R.T.s. He believes this aggression begins quicker with turtles who resemble F.R.T.s (i.e.: softshells). Menikos also advised no mixing. Flavia believed it’s possible to mix if you raise them together from a very small size, but said they’ll attack later additions (she had 2 with an Indonesian Snakeneck Turtle). Warning: notes Roempp had a female FRT severely bite the back limbs of an (both similar-sized) Indonesian snake-neck (Macrochelodina rugosa), & giant snake-neck (Macrochelodina expansa); a male FRT did not3. Tennessee Public Aquarium in Chattanooga had a Fly River Tank with a couple of FRTs, at least 2 Red-Bellied Short-neck Turtles, and small fish (such as Rainbow fish). Jan Matiaska has kept red-bellied short-necks (Emydura subglobosa) with them, but pointed out FRT’s do well at water temp.s too high for many turtles (even warm for E. subglobosa…) I recommend F.R.T.s be kept alone. If you mix turtles, I suggest several small ‘dither’ fish, tank ‘furniture’ to break up their line of site, provide hiding places & start when all concerned are small. Remember: it costs a LOT of money to be wrong when mixing Fly River Turtles. Aggressive behavior can be sneaky. Captive hatchlings are reputedly slow-growing per one source1, but see Hatchling Care for a different opinion! notes the aggression has been noted in youngsters only 6 months old & might even show up earlier.


  Breeding – Breeding is beyond the capabilities of most hobbyists; I am uncertain whether solitary females will lay infertile eggs without mating, & whether they will lay in water or become egg bound. Adult females should be occasionally palpated for the presence of eggs, & land area with sandy soil provided should eggs be detected. Wild F.R.T.’s typically nest in clean fine sand adjacent to water2 (Cann, 1978, Pernetta and Burgin, 1980; Legler, 1982; Webb et al., 1986; Rose, pers. obs.), but in some locales nests in mud and loams2 (Slater, 1961; Cogger, 1975; Plate 59 and pers. comm..; Groombridge, 1982; Rob Elvish, pers. comm..; Rose, pers. obs.). has a page on reproduction & notes they exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination.  


Hatchlings closely resemble adults & share the same care requirements. Hatchlings initially have an extremely soft plastron2. Remember the plastron starts out pinkish & even juveniles may be aggressive to their own or other species, so deny the temptation to add turtles to what is probably a large enclosure.


Content same as adults, with feeding schedule covered under Recommended Feeding Schedule. Don't overfeed high-protein foods.


Jan Matiaska (knowledgeable about the species) charted the growth of 4 young juveniles (not 'power fed' a high-protein diet) from 10-3-02 through 4-4-04. All 4 started out around 7.0 cm SCL (~ 2.75"). Growth occurred a fairly constant rate through 4-4-04, at which point they ranged from 14.0 - 15.6 cm SCL (~ 5.5 - 6.2"). One 'middle' specimen's measurements were 10-3-02 6.9 cm (to start), 4-2-03 8.6 cm (~ 6 months), 10-1-03 12.6 cm (~ 1 year), 4-4-04 15.2 cm (~ 18 months).


  Activity Cycle: Diurnal (day-time active). Flavia said they sleep the whole afternoon and are active at night and early morning, cruising and playing mainly at night! In her experience, it’s best to feed them at night because late morning and early afternoon they sleep. Jan Matiaska’s FRT’s are most active (gliding & exploring) in morning & evening hours, rest at the bottom by day & sleep at night.

Behavior: One consultant noted they tend to be slow-moving and mellow but can bolt quickly when startled, and are generally non-aggressive with short necks & slow motion but can bite very hard if poked at. He noted some like a head rub in the water; your mileage may vary but be careful. Eric Olsen noted juveniles don't routinely "cruise" in the water column as the adults do, but usually stay on the bottom and are inactive much of the time; MacLeod on the other hand has found even the young to be fairly active. Whether this is due to individual specimen differences or subtle husbandry differences isn’t clear; there are a range of experiences.

Availability in the Hobby: FRT's have historically shown up fairly often on major online classifieds but in late 2004 they were classified as CITES II; combined with the lack of captive breeding U.S. availability may rapidly dwindle. Pricing ranges from ~ $350 - $700 apiece in the U.S.A., but quite variable (I saw a Classified for large ones at $1,500 apiece; can be had cheap in some parts of Asia; Flavia said $23 U.S. in Malaysia). Captive breeding is very rare so assume the acquisition is wild-caught (or hatched from a wild-harvested egg) unless known otherwise. Jan Matiaska reported that prior to being listed CITES II he'd seen them priced ~ 80 - 100 Euros in Europe; expect prices to rise from there.

Climate: Tropical species that does not hibernate.

Known U.S. Legalities: CITES II.


XII.) Useful Online Resources

  1. Carettochelys.Com – An ITTN Affiliate we’re proud to have & top-notch site featuring Australian turtles (also Papua, New Guinea & South East Asia) including extensive coverage & first-hand original information on Fly River Turtles. Author’s Scott Thomson & Jan Matiaska have contributed enormously to this hobby by offering such high-quality information free online. You owe it to yourself & your turtle to heavily research this site!
  2. Carettochelys insculpta (Ramsay, 1886) Pig-Nosed Turtle – excellent site by Oliver Römpp. Includes adult male vs. female photos, a distribution map, photos of characteristic features (including plastron shot of a juvenile), & a pleasing blend of natural history & captive care info.
  3. The Pig-nosed Turtle, Carettochelys insculpta by Michael Bargeron – A fine concise natural history summary.
  4. The Pig-nosed Turtle; Arthur Georges (Applied Ecology Research Group) and Mark Rose (The Wildlife Trust, 5 Fulbourne Manor, Fulborn, Cambridge CB1 5BN, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom) for Chelonian Conservation and Biology – An excellent extensive natural history breakdown.
  5. Yahoo Fly River Turtles Group – I found this group very helpful for learning & making connections with experienced keepers.
  6. World Chelonian Trust, host to a vast array of comprehensive information resources on turtles & tortoises features & fellow ITTN affiliate, has an article on Differentiating Male & Female Fly River Turtles. They also feature this photo gallery.
  7. A Few Pig-nosed Pictures. A couple of young & adult shots; nice frontal view of a larger one.


XIII.) Useful Books 

  1. The Australian Pig-Nosed Turtle, Arthur Georges, Sean Doody, Jeanne Young & John Cann, (Robey, Canberra Press, 2000). I don’t have a copy, but a consultant recommended it.
  2. Practical Encyclopedia of Keeping & Breeding Tortoises & Freshwater Turtles – A.C. Highfield, Carapace Press, c/o The Tortoise Trust, BM Tortoise, London, England. First Ed. 1996. This book seems out-of-stock at major online suppliers right now.
  3. Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles – Russ Gurley, Living Art Publishing, P.O. Box 321, Ada, Oklahoma, USA  74821-0321. 2003.
  4. Australian Freshwater Turtles – John Cann, Beaumont Publishing Pte Ltd., Singapore. 1998. 292 pp. A series of natural history accounts of Australian turtles with beautiful ‘eye candy’ photo.s. Not a care guide.


XIV.) Credits

     First Author:          Richard Lunsford

Consultants:            Tom Coy

                              Scott Thomson

                              Jan Matiaska

                              Maxx MacLeod

                              Eric Olsen

                              Flavia Guimaraes

                              Stephen Menikos

Note: Not all consultants may wish to be publicly named & credited for personal reasons, and this is respected; their input is gratefully acknowledged in any case.

Special Thanks to my consultants, without whom this Care Sheet would not exist. Where experiential differences exist I strove to represent both views, giving you a better concept of what’s known, what’s believed, and what parameters you might vary should your F.R.T. fail to thrive (pH, salinity, substrate or lack thereof, etc…). Last Updated: 4-14-05.

XV.) Bibliography

1.)    The Pig-nosed Turtle, Carettochelys insculpta by Michael Bargeron (Tortuga Gazette 33(3): 1-2, March 1997

His References:

a.)    Cann, John, 1978. Tortoises of Australia. Angus and Robertson Publishers, Sydney, Australia.

b.)    Ernst, Carl H. and Roger W. Barbour, 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 

c.)    Georges, Arthur and Mark Rose, 1993. Conservation biology of the pig-nosed turtle. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1: 3-12, 1993.

d.)    Highfield, A.C., 1996. Practical Encyclopedia of Keeping and Breeding Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. Carapace Press, London, England.

e.)    Pritchard, Peter C.H. 1979. Encyclopedia of Turtles. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune, New Jersey.


2.)     The Pig-nosed Turtle; Arthur Georges (Applied Ecology Research Group) and Mark Rose (The Wildlife Trust, 5 Fulbourne Manor, Fulborn, Cambridge CB1 5BN, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom) for Chelonian Conservation and Biology

Their References:

a.)    Anon. (1978). Pendomen Pengelolaan Satwa Langka Di Indonesia. Jilid 1; Mammalia, Reptilia dan Amphibia. Direktorat Jenderal Kehutanan (Direktorat Perlindungan dan Pengeawetan Alam). Bogor, 103 pp.

b.)    Baur, G. (1888). Osteologische notizen uber reptilien. Zoologischer Anzeiqer 285:417-425.

c.)    Baur, G. (1891). The very peculiar tortoise, Carettochelys Ramsay, from New Guinea. Science 17:190.

d.)    Baur, G. (1891b). On the relations of Carettochelys, Ramsay. Amer. Nat. 15:631-639.

e.)    Bickham, J.W., Bull, J.J. and Legler, J.M. (1983). Karyotypes and evolutionary relationships of trionychoid turtles. Cytologia 48:177-183.

f.)      Boulenger, G.A. (1887). Annals. Mag. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 5) 19:171.

g.)    Boulenger, G.A. (1888b). Remarks on a note by Dr. G. Baur on the Pleurodiran Chelonians. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 6) 2:352-354.

h.)    Boulenger,, G.A. (1889). Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., London. 311 pp.

i.)      Boulenger, G.A. (1898). Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a dancing-stick from New Guinea to which two skulls of the Chelonian Carettochelys insculpta were attached. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1898(4):851.

j.)      Boulenger, G.A. (1914). An annotated list of the batrachans and reptiles collected by the British Ornithologist's Union expedition and the Wollaston expedition in Dutch New Guinea. Trans. Zool. Soc., London 20(5):247-268.

k.)    Brongersma, L.D. (1958). The Animal World of Netherlands New Guinea. J.B. Wolters, Groningen. 70pp.

l.)      Cann, J. (1972). Notes on some tortoises collected in northern Australia. Victorian Nat. 89:165-168.

m.)  Cann, J. (1974). Collecting in Irian Jaya during 1972. Roy. Zool. Soc. Bull. Herpetol. 1(3):4-14.

n.)    Cann, J. (1978). Tortoises of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

o.)    Cann, J. (1980). Confessions of a tortoise freak. Geo 3(2):50- 69.

p.)    Chaloupka, G., Kapirigi, N., Nayidji, B. and Nomingum, G. (1985). Cultural survey of Balawurru, Deaf Adder Creek, Amarrkananga, Cannon Hill and the Northern Corridor. Unpubl. Report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

q.)    Chen, B.Y., Mao S.H. and Ling, Y.H. (1980). Evolutionary relationships of turtles suggested by immunological cross-reactivity of albumins. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 66B:421-425.

r.)     CITES, 1973. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Washington, 3-Mar-73.

s.)     Chkhikvadze, V.M. (1970). Classification of the subclass of Testudinata. XVI Sci. Session Inst. Paleobiol.; 1970 December 10-11; Acad. Sci. Georgian S.S.R. "Metsmeoreba" Tbilisi:7-8.

t.)      Cogger, H.G. (1970). First record of the Pitted-Shelled Turtle, Carettochelys insculpta, from Australia. Search 1:41.

u.)    Cogger, H.G. (1975). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. A.H. and A.W. Reed, Sydney. 660 pp. Revised editions in 1979, 1983, 1986.

v.)    Cogger, H.G., Cameron, E.E. and Cogger, H.M. (1981). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 1. Amphibia and Reptilia. Aust. Gov. Publ. Serv., Canberra. 313 pp.

w.)  Cogger, H.G. and Heatwole, H. (1981). The Australian reptiles: Origins, biogeography, distribution patterns and island evolution. Monographia Biologicae 41:1331-1373.

x.)    Dames and Moore International (1987). Coronation Hill Project: Biological Survey of the Coronation Hill area. Unpubl. final report for BHP Engineering (Job No. 15265-001-073), July 1987.

y.)    De Rooij, N. (1915). The reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago I: Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. E.J. Brill Ltd, Leiden.

z.)     De Rooy, N. (1922). Reptiles (Lacertilia, Chelonia and Emydosauria). Nova Guinea (Zool) 13:133-153.

aa.)  Dupe, K.V. (1980). The Pitted Shelled Turtle Carettochelys insculpta in the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Nat. 1(3):14.

bb.)  Erben, H.K. (1970). Ultrastrukturen und mineralisation rezenter und fossiler Eischalen bei Vogeln und Reptilien (Ultrastructures and mineralization of recent and fossil avian and reptilian eggshells). Biomineralization 1:1-66. [in German, with summary and captions in English]

cc.) Frair, W. (1983). Serological survey of softshells with other turtles. J. Herpetol. 17:75-79.

dd.)  Frair, W. (1985). The enigmatic plateless river turtle, Carettochelys, in serological survey. J. Herpetol. 19:515- 523.

ee.) Gadow, H. (1901). Amphibia and Reptiles. In S.F. Harmer and A.E. Shipley (Eds). The Cambridge Natural History, Vol. 8. Macmillan and Co., London. 668 pp.

ff.)    Gaffney, E.S. (1981). A review of the fossil turtles of Australia. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2720:1-38.

gg.)   Georges, A. (1987). The Pig-nosed Turtle -- Warradjan. Aust. Nat. Hist. 22:230- 234.

hh.)  Georges, A. (1990a). Management of the pig-nosed turtle in northern Australia. Aust. Ranger Bull. 5(4):32-35.

ii.)   Georges, A. (1990b). The pig-nosed turtle in Kakadu National Park -- A submission to the Kakadu Conservation Zone Enquiry. Submission KA 90/59, Resource Assessment Commission, Dept of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Canberra.

jj.)   Georges, A. (1991). Thermal characteristics and sex determination in field nests of the pig-nosed turtle Carettochelys insculpta (Chelonia: Carettochelydidae) from northern Australia. Submitted to Aust. J. Zool.

kk.)  Georges, A. and Kennett, R. (1988). Dry-season distribution and ecology of the Warradjan (Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay) in Kakadu National Park. Report to A.N.P.W.S., February 1988. 62 pp.

ll.)     Georges, A. and Kennett, R. (1989). Dry season distribution and ecology of Carettochelys insculpta (Chelonia: Carettochelydidae) in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. Aust. Wildl. Res. 16:323-335.

mm.)  Georges, A., Choquenot, D., Coventry, A.J. and Wellings, P. (1989). A note on Carettochelys insculpta (Testudinata: Carettochelyidae) from northern Australia. Northern Territory Nat. 11:8-11.

nn.)  Glaessner, M.F. (1942). The occurrence of the New Guinea turtle (Carettochelys) in the Miocene of Papua. Rec. Aust. Mus. 21:106-109.

oo.)  Goode, J. (1967). Freshwater Tortoises of Australia and New Guinea (In the Family Chelidae). Lansdowne Press, Melbourne.

pp.)  Gorter, J.D. and Nicoll, R.S. (1978). Reptilian fossils from Windjana Gorge, Western Australia. J. Roy. Soc. West. Aust. (60:97-104.

qq.)  Groombridge, B. (1982). I.U.C.N. Amphibia-Reptilia Red Data Book. Part 1. Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynchocephalia. I.U.C.N. Publ., Gland, Switzerland.

rr.)   Hay, O.P. (1908). The fossil turtles of North America. Carnegie Institute, Washington.

ss.)  Hummel, K. (1929). Die fossilen weichschidkroten (Trionychia): Eine morphologisch-systematische und stammesgeschichtliche studie. Geologische and Paleontologische Abhandlungen. Vol. 16, 1929.

tt.)    I.U.C.N. (1989). Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. An Action Plan for their Conservation. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland. 47 pp.

uu.)  Iverson, J.B. (1986). A Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the world. Privately printed.

vv.)  Kilias, R. (1957). Die funktionell-anatomische und systematische bedeutung der schlafenreduktionen bei schildkroten. Mitteil. zool. Mus. 33:307-354. [in German]

ww.)  Legler, J.M. (1980). Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of Freshwater turtles in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory. Unpubl. report to the Office of the Supervising Scientist, Canberra. 12-Sept-1980 (Suppl. Report 1-July-1982).

xx.) Legler, J.M. (1982). The ecology of freshwater turtles in the Alligator Rivers region. Unpubl. report to the Office of the Supervising Scientist, Canberra. 30-Nov-1982.

yy.) Liem, D.S. and Haines, A.K. (1977). The ecological significance and economic importance of the mangrove and estuarine communities of the Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Purari River (Wabo) Hydroelectric Scheme Environ. Stud. 3:1-35

zz.)  Longman, H.A. (1913). Herpetological notes. Part I. -- Systematic. Including the description of one new species. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 2:39-45.

aaa.)  Nesov, L.A. (1977). A new genus of pitted-shell turtle from the Upper Cretaceous of Karakalpahia. Paleontologicheskii Zh. 1977:103-114. [in Russian]

bbb.)  Meylan, P.A. (1988). Peltochelys Dollo and the relationships among the Genera of Carettochelyidae (Testudines: Reptilia). Herpetologica 44:440-450.

ccc.)  Ogilby, J.D. (1907). Catalogue of the Emydosaurian and Testudinian reptiles of New Guinea. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 19:1-31.

ddd.)  Pernetta, J.C., and Burgin, S. (1980). Census of crocodile populations and their exploitation in the Purari area (with an annotated checklist of the herpetofauna). Purari River (Wabo) Hydroelectric Scheme Environ. Stud. 14:1-44

eee.)  Peters, U. (1970). Die Papua-Schildkrote (Carettochelys insculpta) in Australien! Aquar. Terr. Z. 23:182-183 [in German]

fff.)  Press, A.J. (1986). The Gagudju species survey. Unpubl. Report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

ggg.)  Pritchard, P.C.H. (1979a). Encyclopedia of Turtles. T.F.H. Publ., New Jersey.

hhh.)  Pritchard, P.C.H. (1979b). Taxonomy, evolution, and zoogeography. Pp. 1-42 in Turtles. Perspectives and Research. ed. by Harless, M. and Morlock, H., John Wiley and Sons, New York.

iii.)   Ramsay, E.P. (1886). On a new genus and species of fresh water tortoise from the Fly River, New Guinea. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 1:158-162.

jjj.)  Rhodin, A.G.J. and Rhodin, S.D. (1977). Iakttagelser fran en herpetologisk samlingsresa till Papua New Guinea. Snoken (Nat. Swedish Herp. Soc.) 7(2/3):65-72. [in Swedish with English summary]

kkk.)  Rose, M.R. (1981). Draft Red Data Book Account of Carettochelys insculpta. Unpubl. report. 21-Apr-81.

lll.)   Schodde, R., Mason, I., and Wolfe, T.O. (1972). Further records of the Pitted- shelled turtle (Carettochelys insculpta) from Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. South Aust. 96115-117.

mmm.)  Schultze-Westrum, T. (1963). Die Papuaschildkrote aus Neuguinea. Natur und Museum, Frankf. 93(4):119-127. [in German]

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ooo.)  Siebenrock, (1913). Schildkroten aus Syrien und Mesopotamien. Ann. Hofmus. Wein 27. [in German]

ppp.)  Simpson, G.G. (1944). Tempo and Mode in Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.

qqq.)  Slater, K.R. (1961). Reptiles in New Guinea. Aust. Territories 1(5):27-35

rrr.)  Strauch, A. (1890). Bemerkungen uber die Schildkrotensammlung im Zool. Museum der Kaiserl Akad. Wiss. St Petersburg. Mem. Acad. St Petersbourg 38(2). [in German]

sss.)  Tyler, M. (1979). Herpetofaunal relationships of South America with Australia. In "The South American herpetofauna: Its origin, evolution and dispersal" ed. by W.E. Duellman. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Monogr. 7:1-485.

ttt.)  Vaillant, L. (1894). Essai sur la classification generale des chelonians. Ann. Sci. Nat. (Ser. 6), Zool. 10:6-106.

uuu.)  Versluys, J. (1922). Ein lebende Anosteiride, Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay. Paleontoloqische zeitchrift 5:97-99. [in German]

vvv.)  Waite, E.R. (1905). The osteology of the New Guinea turtle (Carettochelys insculpta, Ramsay). Aust. Mus. Rec. 6:110- 118.

www.)  Walther, W.G. (1922). Die Neu-Guinea-Schildkrote Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay. Nova Guinea (Zool) 13:607-704. [in German].

xxx.)  Webb, G.J.W., Choquenot, D. and Whitehead, P.J. (1986). Nests, eggs, and embryonic development of Carettochelys insculpta (Chelonia: Carettochelidae) from northern Australia. J. Zool., London 1B:521-550.

yyy.)  Wermuth, H. (1963). Die Papua-Weichschildkrote, Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay. Aquarien und Terrarien-Zeitschrift (Stuttgart) 16:341-343.

zzz.)  Wildholz, M., Budavari, S., Blumetti, R.F. and Otterbein, E.S. (eds). (1983). The Merck Index. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 10th Edition. Merck and Co., Rahway, N.J., U.S.A.

aaaa.)  Williams, E.E. (1950). Variation and selection in the cervical central articulations of living turtles. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 94:505-562.

3.)    Carettochelys.Com – by Scott Thomson & Jan Matiaska. The premier online resource for FRT info. & additionally covers other turtles (of Australia, Papua, New Guinea & South East Asia). Both natural history & captive husbandry covered. Part of the ITTN network.

4.)    Carettochelys insculpta (Ramsay, 1886) Pig-Nosed Turtle – excellent site by Oliver Römpp.

5.) Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles – Russ Gurley, Living Art Publishing, P.O. Box 321, Ada, Oklahoma, USA  74821-0321. 2003.

6.) ATP Guide to UV-B Lighting - by Richard Lunsford. Austin's Turtle Page. 2005.