Florida Chicken Turtle -
Eastern Chicken Turtle - Deirochelys
Western Chicken Turtle -
Deirochelys reticularia miaria
are medium (males)-to-large (females) basking turtles & females achieve fair
bulk (females roughly on par with female RES, but males smaller than male RES).
The carapace has a brown to grey base color with a distinctive reticulate
pattern (think ‘irregular chain link fence’). The plastron tends toward plain
yellow. There's a single broad yellow stripe down the front of the fore-legs.
Between rear leg & tail is vertical striping. They are famous for having very long
necks (by U.S.A. standards; they don’t reach true ‘snake neck’ proportions. They
do carry the nickname ‘American snake neck’). Some have an upward-angled light
stripe from the rear of the mouth to the nose, giving
them an upturned snout look (like a hognose snake, but the snout doesn't
actually turn up), sort of a smiling expression (vaguely like a male
common map turtle). There's a bar or partial bar across the eye pupil.
Florida chicken turtles have the more ornate reticulations
& possibly head striping (the 'loudest' coloration). Keith B. described some
differences (warning: not all individuals will match these, & intergrades are
Florida Chicken - Broad orange or yellow lines on the
carapace, a wide color band on the carapace rim, no markings on the
Eastern Chicken - Duller in color compared to Florida
chickens, narrow green or brown lines on the carapace, a more narrow color
band on the carapace rim, black markings on the underside of the lateral &
Western Chicken - Flatter carapace, broad but faint
lines on the carapace, dark markings along the plastron seams (Note:
Paul V. (Chelidman) noted the Western is the only sub-species with
plastral markings)& apparently no markings on the underside of the neck &
chin on adults (although an adult in Turtles of the World Vol. 220
Page 39 with dark carapacial markings does show a striped chin
& underside of the head!).Turtles of the World Vol. 220,
Page 39 depicts a Western chicken with dark plastral markings but striping
on the chin & underside of the head; Tom C.'s male sub-adult Western has a
plain underside of the head but lacks notable plastral markings! Chelidman
commented that the general rule of thumb is western s have markings along
the plastral seam and reduced or absent striping on the underside of the
neck, but some show divergence from that.
Greg notes adult female
Florida Chicken Turtles tend to get much larger & bulkier than the other
subspecies, with larger, domed shells necessitating more enclosure space (Note:
a number of Florida turtles have more domed shells, including the Florida Redbelly Turtle and Florida Snapper; it’s been speculated this may be an
anti-alligator adaptation). However, Cris notes chicken turtles have thinner,
weaker shells than some basking turtles (i.e.: sliders), & tend to inhabit
seasonal wetlands (where alligators don’t predominate). But be warned; adult
females of any sub-species are quite large.
Size: 4-6 inch carapace
length; record 10 inches1 (Note: I consider the Peterson’s typical
size figure quite conservative & expect many captives will exceed it. Patrick
has a male with a 6 7/8” carapace). Females are over 1.5 x’s larger than males3.
Turtle Pimp has an 11" SCL female. Males have longer, thicker tails with a more distal vent (past the carapace
rim), as also seen with sliders & map turtles.
Range (°F): (All ranges are estimates)
Temperature: Mid. 70’s to 80’s
Temperature: Roughly 85-90º
Roughly mid-70'sº; go with 80º the first few months of
Usually ‘no.’ For
a dedicated person, yes. Females in particular don’t stay small like Southern &
Midland Painteds or some male map turtles (i.e.: Texas & Cagle’s maps), & are
moderately expensive. I strongly recommend choosing a male (for the smaller
size). If this turtle will be kept outside & hibernated, I recommend against the
Florida subspecies since through much of their natural range hibernation might
be minimal or unnecessary. In Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles2
(Page 117), Russ Gurley notes baby chicken turtles are a little more delicate
than slider babies.
In Keeping and
Breeding Freshwater Turtles2, Russ Gurley states chicken turtles exhibit a
carnivorous feeding pattern & hatchlings & youngsters feed on aquatic insects,
tadpoles & crayfish. In Greg’s experience chicken turtles are aggressively
carnivorous, much more so than, say, cooters, & given opportunity will kill
large numbers of fish in a day. They can expand their throats to ‘vacuum’ assist
may cut down on water resistance during the strike, rather than sucking prey
In Turtles of the United States and Canada18 (Page 365), research is cited
& a claim made that during the first year they’re at least partially carnivorous11,
but adults probably more omnivorous (it’s stated adults take romaine lettuce but
juveniles refuse plant material). It’s noted the chicken turtle has a
well-developed hyoid apparatus to literally suck in food items (as Greg has
I am not aware of any
stomach content studies providing occurrence by frequency or volume of plant or
animal matter, or a breakdown of just what’s eaten. Given their long necks,
vacuum-strike technique & carnivorous bent it seems likely they may have greater
ability to catch small fish than, say, sliders & painteds. It seems reasonable
to figure varied invertebrates (insects, larvae, crayfish, etc…), tadpoles &
occasional small fish are dietary fixtures.
Based on the available information, I recommend proceeding
on the assumption chicken turtle hatchlings are carnivores that progress to
predominantly carnivorous adults. This is not unlike some map turtles, with the
caveat we don’t expect chicken turtles to eat intact shellfish (as some female
maps can) & map turtles lack the expected chicken turtle fishing capability. Patrick finds his love
catfish nuggets & fillets. These could be a treat. His turtles also eat
vegetation (collard greens, water hyacinth, iceberg & romaine lettuce, & they
Hatchlings may be offered
a moderate protein diet once daily, graduating to every other day after 6 to 12
months. Romaine lettuce, Anacharis, Water Hyacinth & other safe edible
aquatic plants should be offered often to encourage low-protein intake (daily
romaine lettuce is fine). Choose a good brand name commercial food (i.e.: Mazuri,
ReptoMin, etc…) & augment with live food offerings (crayfish, earth worm, cricket, etc…).
Some people cut dietary protein by using some commercial tortoise food. As
discussed under Hatchling Care, Diet, include small crayfish or
shrimp & Hikari vitamin-enriched frozen bloodworms.
RECOMMENDED FEEDING SCHEDULE
Our standard recommendations would state for the first 6
months of life, feed commercial pellets or meaty foods such as earthworms or
fish once daily, enough to diminish appetite but not gorge the turtle. (As
discussed under Hatchling Care, Diet, I recommend feeding
moderate amounts twice daily the first month.) After
6 months, switch to every other day feeding. Romaine lettuce, Anacharis,
Water Hyacinth & other safe edible aquatic plants & other leafy greens may
be offered daily for graze at will (if your chicken is an odd-ball & likes
plants) to encourage low-protein intake (daily romaine lettuce is fine).
Over time adjust diet content & schedule accounting for growth, activity
level & appetite. Overfeeding high-protein foods can cause rapid growth& is
believed harmful to the liver & kidneys.
However, an experienced Florida breeder produces live food
in an outdoor container (variety of organisms, including tiny native shrimp)
& offers enough food daily that hatchlings may forage at will. He believes
they do better with food available all the time (Turtle Pimp also favors
feeding vigorously). However, much of their
intake will be very small food items, & live prey items include substantial
indigestible chitin (exoskeleton) & are largely water, unlike nutrient-dense
commercial turtle foods (like ReptoMin). That said, spreading the food over
the course of the day is more natural so try giving hatchlings at least
twice daily small feedings. This same breeder has noted better hatchling
survival since adding Hikari vitamin-enriched frozen bloodworms to
the diet (Hikari sells vitamin-enriched & not; use the former) so I
recommend including some in the diet.
You may optionally feed hatchlings & young juveniles a few
times daily, with the stipulation you exercise the discipline to spread the
food supply over the day rather than increase it over what would be given
WILD & CAPTIVE HABITAT
Chicken turtles are
considered basking semi-aquatic turtles (along with sliders, cooters, painted &
map turtles). Turtles of the United States and Canada (Page 359) states
they inhabit still waters (including ponds, lakes, ditches, marshes, cypress
swamps & Carolina bays), normally with ample amounts of aquatic vegetation and a
soft bottom. South Carolina-based research4 shows Eastern chicken
turtles are capable living in ephemeral habitats (such as South Carolina Bays,
whose water levels drop over summer); they can burrow into upland forest floor
(‘refugia’), presumably to escape drought. (Note: Carolina Bays are
unusual habitats where water levels drop a lot over the summer & can create bad
conditions & concentrate turtle populations leaving them vulnerable to
predators; fleeing to upland refugia (typically late summer to early autumn) may
provide shelter from poor environment & predators)4. Chicken turtles
can migrate overland when the need arises, but one study found Eastern Chicken
turtles less likely to emigrate from a drying habitat than YBS & Florida cooters
(though they decreased reproduction), & noted most populations in that region
were associated with fluctuating, non-permanent bodies of water6.
Turtles of the World (CD Edition)17 notes sometimes large
aggregations can be found in temporary pools, & states that apparently they
don’t live in moving-water habitats. Chicken turtles hibernate through colder
parts of their habitat.
Cris drew on his
experience & contacts to note they seem to predominate in seasonal wetland
habitat rather than large, permanent water bodies. Cris suspects this may be to
avoid alligators (given their thinner, weaker shells). What’s more, they will
head overland & burrow (shallowly) into forest floor, whereas sliders & cooters
abandoning a water body seek another instead.
Patrick reports that they
are very secretive in the wild (& suspects adults bask less than juveniles).
However, Greg said his have always basked only ‘the slightest bit less’
than cooters & sliders. My impression from forum experience is that they are
much harder to field herp than sliders, painteds & cooters.
Turtle Pimp noted chicken turtles (including hatchlings)
burrow into mud to roust out crayfish, & in his experience in Florida around
mid-afternoon (between 3 & 4:00 p.m.) they'd burrow into the mud in shallow
water looking for crayfish, heads first into the mud.
The basic layout is that
of a standard semi-aquatic turtle setup; largely aquatic with a good-sized
basking platform (which dries completely to maintain plastron health) large
enough to allow the turtle to choose its distance from the heat lamp &
self-regulate its temperature. Since still sluggish vegetated waters are
preferred in nature, avoid strong currents & loudly splashing water, & provide
tank ‘furniture’ (driftwood, plastic or live plants, etc…) to provide a complex
environment to interact with.
Patrick finds his like to
move their heads & necks amongst branches (think mangrove-like), & are very
inquisitive. PetsMart & other pet store chains offer synthetic resin stumps &
roots that may serve this purpose.
I recommend an enclosure
no smaller than a 75 gallon aquarium for 1 to 2 adult male chicken turtles, and
no smaller than 125 gallons for a large female. The enclosure should have
adequate water depth (at least 2/3’rds full, but beware escape by climbing out)
& a large basking platform that dries completely. If you are to breed them, a
larger enclosure with a nesting site is needed.
Patrick notes they love the bottoms of ponds (20” depth in his), &
Greg notes the famous ‘I-4’ (a wild-caught female Florida chicken turtle) seems to
enjoy relaxing on the bottom when not feeding or basking, floating at the
surface when basking and chasing minnows, and tends to bask before the other
turtles steal the spot (Greg goes at least a foot deep). With this in mind, plan
on a fairly deep enclosure if you can.
For adults, plan water depths at least 1.5x SCL; the same
guideline is fine for hatchlings, although with time you can offer juveniles
deeper water with the stipulation you provide plenty of underwater
'furniture' for support (i.e.: driftwood, synthetic rocks & logs, plastic
Few enough people keep chicken turtles to make comments
anecdotal, but I've neither experienced nor heard of any problems keeping
chicken turtles with other species, as long as those tank-mates are
non-aggressive. One exception - my young adult male appeared very interested
in my juvenile spiny softshell & fearing imminent attack I have kept them
separately since. Chicken turtles will compete directly with tank-mates for
food (i.e.: 'tug-o-war') & can cause or receive scratched eyes & such. Be
warned adult mud turtles are known to prey on hatchling chicken turtles;
don't expose hatchlings to much larger turtles of any species (this applies
to hatchlings of any species).
The main restrictions on tank-mates are enclosure needs (cooters,
sliders, painteds, maps, musk) have similar needs.
Breeding – Chicken
turtle egg laying patterns vary with region. They’re unusual in having a ‘winter
nesting pattern.’16 Those in South Carolina were noted to nest late
winter/early spring and fall/early winter7,12,13, 16, whereas those
in Florida did so continuously mid-Sept. to early March16 (Florida is
partly semi-tropical, which may account for the difference). Females can retain
their eggs for months (possibly in response to unfavorable conditions)14.
They are noted to undergo diapause (arrested development) & require a period of
chilling to resume development9,10. In Keeping and Breeding
Freshwater Turtles3 (Page 117), Russ Gurley states in warmer
climates females lay multiple clutches of eggs (6-10/clutch) which hatch in
75-85 days depends on incubation temperature, & recommends 82ºF & 75-85%
relative humidity for a mixed male/female crop (he didn’t mention diapause). Sex
determination is temp. dependent so you can choose their gender! Turtles
of the United States and Canada (Page 364) states 100% of eggs incubated at 25ºC
produce males, but at 30ºC only 11% were males15.
Ron Allen in KY
incubated a batch of eggs; he acquired a batch of 7 eggs
(presumably Florida chicken, but taken from the Gainesville area close enough to
Eastern range for possible intergradation) in August. He incubated 5 at a
constant 82º & none hatched. He incubated 2 at that same 82º but after ~ a month
he cooled them in his basement (to maybe the mid. 60’s?) for ~ 1.5 months, then
resumed 82º incubation – both hatched.
Cris Hagen knows a scientist
who’s hatched eggs and been involved in scientific research on chicken
turtles. After consulting with him, Cris relayed the following info. The eggs
are incubated normally (28-30ºC) for a couple of weeks after they’re laid. Then
put them in a refrigerator (or other cool environment) for 1-2 months. Then
resume normal incubation & they should hatch in 70-90 days! Cooling the eggs
down for a month or more is thought crucial or else embryonic development will
not resume from diapause & they die.
Turtle Pimp was aware of an
outdoor breeder who places a wire cage (roughly 3' x 18" x 18" screen enclosure)
around the nest & when it gets close to hatching time attaches a long wire
mesh tube that extends to the water and on the end of the wire tube there is
another semi-submerged wire cage to keep the hatchlings from getting free into
the pond. (Note: Moles are a significant predator of nests).
In Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles
(Page 117), Russ Gurley notes baby chicken turtles are a little more delicate
than slider babies. That's an understatement; we've had healthy hatchlings in
appropriate enclosures with skilled keepers die a few days later for no
clear reason (2 of our members had this happen with 1 each). For that
reason, I advise a regimen of 'best care practices' with some measures that
might be useful in theory:
Have the setup already going for a few days before
you get the turtle.
Start out with fairly shallow water (~ 2x SCL) to
minimize stress & exertion.
Use very clean water. We don't know much about the
impact of pH, so check pH & make sure it's not extremely acidic (< 6.0)
or alkaline (> 7.6) & if it's too alkaline add some distilled water
(sold at Wal-mart) to dilute the water's buffering capacity & reduce the
pH toward neutral. It's highly unlikely tap water will be acidic. This
is a theoretical concern, not one that's been shown to
A few live plants like some strands of Anacharis
to help maintain water quality should be good.
Provide plenty of cover (i.e.: plastic plants & a
hide-cave) to provide a sense of shelter/protection & minimize stress.
Use a dechlorinator that also handles chloramines;
it's thought chlorine can harm intestinal flora in turtles.
Use a turtle 'sulfa block' (i.e.: Dr. Turtle) the
first few weeks to cut down on bacterial counts in the tank & in
theory possibly reduce the risk of acquiring infection. (Note:
the whole block will dissolve in even a small amount of water, so break
off a piece sized for the water volume you're using (1/2 for 10 gallons,
1/4 for 5 gallons, etc...).
80 degree water - let's make sure those immune
systems are working well. After a few weeks you can reduce to 76-78ºF.
Provide a good, warm basking spot from the word
'Go' so that turtle can get warm & fight off infections better if it
UV-B lighting right away - preferably fairly strong
- sunlight is reputed to have healing power for turtles, but isn't an
option for most indoor keepers (be very careful to prevent rapid
over-heating if you try exposing hatchlings in small containers
outdoors). A Repti-Sun 5.0 Tube bulb would be a fine choice (ideally in
a hood with a reflector).
Feed daily but don't gorge them. We know baby
smooth & spiny softshells can gorge & die (Timdog suspects they may take
in so much the lungs have too little room to expand; why is less an
issue than that this is known to happen, so in theory it could
threaten any hatchling).
Don't try feeding outside the main tank the first
month of life - the theoretical point is to minimize stress. And don't
take them out for photos the first 2 weeks (theoretical concern re:
Cover enough of the tank so there aren't drafts &
the air stays warm.
Don't mix with other turtles or their things the
first month of life; why expose to disease when it's new & stressed?
Make sure the room never goes entirely dark. It's
thought in deeper tanks Eastern & Mississippi muds, and baby 3-striped
muds, may be at drowning risk. No reason to suspect it of chicken
turtles but I say why take a chance? A night-light, or a nearby fish
tank with the hood light on, could do the trick.
Content same as adults, with feeding schedule covered
under Recommended Feeding Schedule. However, Turtle Pimp noted
that hatchling chickens survive on bloodworms and baby crayfish. Nothing
else! They may eat everything in sight, but these two foods are the only
thing that seems to get them over the 'hatchling hump.' He suspects they
have a high calcium need & said despite being good 'fish-nabbers' crayfish
are what they eat most. For the bloodworms, I recommend Hikari
vitamin-enriched frozen bloodworms. The experienced Florida breeder who
breeds them outdoors has a vat in which he propogates lives foods, & he
gives his hatchling chicken turtles about as much shrimp as they'll eat!
(That's in Florida; they have some species of grass shrimp). Turtle Pimp
also favors feeding vigorously, has raised many hatchlings, & for him they
did best on baby crayfish & mayfly larvae. For that
reason, I recommend feeding moderate quantities twice daily the first month
of life to get them started, but I don't recommend completely gorging them.
Chelidman noted hatchlings can be difficult feeders, refusing any kind of
pelleted food for 6 months to a year, & said it's best to start them on
natural food (frozen or live is fine) and you can try to wean them over to
pellets later by keeping them with baby turtles that do take pellets.
Activity Cycle: Diurnal (day-time active).
Personality: Patrick finds his to be inquisitive & quite personable turtles. In the wild
they’re considered quite wary baskers.
Availability in the Hobby: The Florida
subspecies seems most common in the pet trade. Not common but can usually be
found with persistence (much less common on dealer lists than sliders, painteds &
cooters; similar to Blandings). Hatchings tend to cost ~ $50-75 apiece. I found 1 2-3” yearling for $115 with free shipping (by
Underground Reptiles) and a 4” Florida chicken turtle
for $75.00 (Abbott’s
Turtle Farm). Phil Peak said from what he understand wild-caught
adults often fare poorly & are often plagued by a form of shell rot, especially
in the western part of their range (such as La), much like the bacteria that
attacks the rear marginals in razorback musk from that region. Fortunately
captive-bred hatchlings are available.
suggested we mention “…that
Deirochelys is one of the shortest lived of all the Emydids. Males are
mature by age 2, females by 5. They die between age 12-15. In captivity they may
live 18-20 years.”
Patrick finds his to be inquisitive & quite personable turtles. In the wild
they’re considered quite wary baskers.
Turtles of the United States and Canada18 (Page 362) states at least in the
northern part of their range these turtles hibernate in mud & aquatic
vegetation, but in Florida don’t (remaining active except on cold days). But
Cris notes they can & do hibernate on land, as well. He provided a paper4
stating Deirochelys & Kinosternon subrubrum were commonly found in
terrestrial refugia during late summer through winter at distances up to 165 m
(average duration 185 days) & 135 m (average duration 170 days) (respectively)
from the delineated wetland boundary. However, in Cris experience keeping
chicken turtles outdoors in South Carolina (mild to moderate winters; cold
periods with a few weeks of days roughly 45-60º, nights roughly 20’s-30’sº) an
Eastern chicken turtle can survive in a large well-vegetated stock tank. He
doesn’t recommend outdoor hibernation in climates with extended periods of
sub-freezing weather (occasional cold snaps may be okay; 3 or 4 months straight
Subspecies Differences: Hard to provide in detail given the scarcity of info.; much of our research
base is on Eastern Chicken Turtles in South Carolina, yet The Florida subspecies has a more continuous
nesting season vs. the Eastern, in keeping with the semi-tropical vs. temperate
habitat difference. Greg notes female Floridas are larger & bulkier with larger,
domed carapaces. My Speculation: Eastern & Western have more
temperate climate ranges so I predict their hibernation fitness & cold tolerance
may be greater.
Useful Online Resources
U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Western Chicken Turtle Information Sheet.
An Online Research Summary News Release about Chicken Turtles.
eNature.com’s Chicken Turtle Profile.
Virginia Fish & Wildlife Info. Service – Chicken Turtle Page.
Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary’s Chicken Turtle Entry –
they claim the adult Florida Chicken Turtle’s diet is primarily vegetation, in
contrast to the information I got from other sources).
World Chelonian Trusts Photo Gallery on Chicken Turtles
XIII.) Useful Books
Turtles of the United States and Canada - Roger Conant and Joseph
T. Collins. (Excellent natural history reference for North American species).
Practical Encyclopedia of Keeping and Breeding Tortoises and
Freshwater Turtles – A. C. Highfield. (Excellent general husbandry guide,
but its species profiles do not include the chicken turtle!).
Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles – Russ Gurley. (Another
fine general husbandry guide – does have a 1.5 page profile on chicken
Author: Richard Lunsford
A Florida Breeder who preferred
Paul V. (Chelidman)
* Special Thanks to Cris for sending me some scientific
research papers; good info. & interesting reading.
1.) A Field Guide To Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North
America, 3’rd Ed. (The Peterson Field Guide Series). Roger Conant and Joseph
T. Collins. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, New York. Page 187.
Keeping and Breeding Freshwater Turtles – Russ Gurley, Director,
Turtle and Tortoise Preservation Group. 2003. Published by Living Art Publishing
& Russ Gurley.
3.) Gibbons, J. W. and J. E. Lovich. 1990. Sexual dimorphism in turtles with
emphasis on the slider turtle (Trachymys scripta). Herpetol. Monogr. (4):
1-29. (This reference was cited in Turtles of the United States and Canada).
4.) Buhlmann, Kurt A. and J. Whitfield Gibbons 2001. Terrestrial Habitat Use
by Aquatic Turtles from a Seasonally Fluctuating Wetland: Implications for
Wetland Conservation Boundaries. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, Vol. 4,
Number 1: 115-127.
5.) Bennett D.H., J.W. Gibbons, and J.C. Franson, 1970. Terrestrial activity
in aquatic turtles. Ecology 51:738-740. (This reference was cited in Turtles
of the United States and Canada).
6.) Gibbons, J.W., J.L. Green, and J.D. Congdon, 1983. Drought-related
responses of aquatic turtle populations. J. Herpetol. 17:242-246.
7.) Gibbons, J.W. 1969. Ecology and population dynamics of the chicken
turtle, Deirochelys reticularia. Copeia 1969:669-676.
8.) Gibbons, J.W., and J.L. Green. 1978. Selected aspects of the ecology of
the chicken turtle, Deirochelys reticularia (Latreille) (Reptilia,
Testudines, Emydidae). J. Herpetol. 12:237-241. (This reference was cited in
Turtles of the United States and Canada).
9.) Ewert, 1985. Embryology of turtles. (In Gans, C., F. Billett, and
P.F.A. Maderson, eds. Biology of the Reptilia, vol. 14, Development A, 75-267.
John Wiley & Sons, New York). (This reference was cited in Turtles of the
United States and Canada).
10.) Ewert, 1991. Cold torpor, diapause, delayed hatching and aestivation in
reptiles and birds. In Demming, D.C., and M.W.J. Ferguson, eds. Egg
incubation: Its effects on embryonic development in birds and reptiles, 173-191.
Cambridge University Press, New York). (This reference was cited in Turtles
of the United States and Canada).
11.) D.R. Jackson, 1978. Evolution and fossil record of the chicken turtle
Deirochelys, with a re-evaluation of the genus. Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot.
20:35-55. (This reference was cited in Turtles of the United States and
12.) Gibbons, J.W., and J.L. Green. 1979. X-ray photography: A technique to
determine reproductive patterns of freshwater turtles. Herpetologica 35:86-89.
13.) Gibbons, J.W., and J.L. Green. 1990. Reproduction in the slider and other
species of turtles. In Gibbons, J.W., ed. Life history and ecology of the slider
turtle, 124-134. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (This reference
was cited in Turtles of the United States and Canada).
14.) Buhlmann, Kurt A., Tracy K. Lynch, J. Whitfield Gibbons and Judith L.
Greene. 1995. Prolonged Egg Retention in the Turtle Deirochelys reticularia
in South Caronlina. Herpetologica, 51(4), 457-462
15.) Ewert, M.A. and C.E. Nelson, 1991. Sex determination in turtles: Diverse
patterns and some possible adaptive values. Copeia 1991:50-69. (This reference
was cited in Turtles of the United States and Canada).
16.) Jackson, D. R. 1988. Reproductive strategies of sympatric freshwater
emydid turtles in northern peninsular Florida. Bull. Florida St. Mus. Biol. Sci.
33: 113-158. (This reference was cited in the Turtles of the World CD & Turtles
of the United States and Canada).
17.) Turtles of the World (CD-ROM Edition) - C.H. Ernst, R.G.M.
Altenburg and R.W. Barbour. Version 1.0 (Mac), 1.2 (Windows). Springer Verlag.
18.) Turtles of The United States and Canada –Carl H. Ernst, Jeffrey E.
Lovich and Roger W. Barbour. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and
Kinematics of Aquatic and Terrestrial Prey Capture in Terrapene carolina,
With Implications for the Evolution of Feeding in Cryptodire Turtles - Adam P. Summer,* Kayvan F. Darouian, Alan M. Richmond & Elizabeth L. Brainherd.
Department of Biology and Graduate Program in Organismic Evolutionary Biology,
University of Massachusetts, Amherts, Massachusetts 01003.
20.) Turtles of the World Vol. 2, North America - Holger Vetter. Terralog
series. Publisher Andreas S. Brahm. © 2004. 128
Pages. ISBN 3-930612-57-7, ISBN 3-936027-52-8.